The agarics , also called psalliotes (the mycologists tear each other apart for many years to see which of the two terms is preferable) are fungi basidiomycetes of the genus Agaricus , belonging to the family of agaricaceae . There are many species, most of which are very similar. They are edible, with the exception of Agaricus xanthoderma which is toxic. The most consumed is Agaricus bisporus , grown industrially in the mushroom farm under the name of mushroom of Paris. “Wild” species often grow abundantly in the meadows and copses, sometimes in light woods, during the first rains of summer.
Agarics are mushrooms whose leaves , free, are pink when the mushroom is young, then brown-black to black when it ages.
The spores are blackish-brown or black.
The hat, fleshy, generally smooth and white in young specimens, is then covered with oily fibrils or dander as it opens.
The foot is initially attached to the hat by a veil, which then turns into a ring. He can easily part with the hat. It does not carry volve , which allows, among other characteristics, to distinguish the agarics of dead white amanites . Confusion is also possible with some small lepidiansbut these have lamellae and white spores.
- Agaricus arvensis : agaric fallows. Sometimes referred to as a snowball , it is one of the largest agarics growing in grasslands and open areas. His hemispherical hat is usually white. It is distinguished from neighboring species by its fairly pronounced anise odor and its ring, whose bottom forms a kind of gear wheel.
- Agaricus bisporus : Bispore agaric. Rare in the wild, it is cultivated under the name of mushroom of Paris .
- Agaricus bitorquis : agaric sidewalks. Known for piercing the asphalt of urban sidewalks.
- Agaricus campestris : country agaric, also called rosé meadows . Without doubt the best of all agarics, it grows in large groups in the meadows. The hat is whitish, usually fibrillous. The lamellae are bright pink then brown. It is also recognized by its strong fungal odor (smell of mushroom).
- Agaricus silvaticus : sylvatic agaric or forest agaric. Met mainly in coniferous forests. His hat is covered with many brown scales. Its flesh is strongly rosy when broken or wrinkled. Strong fungal odor. Excellent edible.
- Agaricus silvicola : silvicultural agaric, also called snowball of the woods . As its name suggests, this agaric grows in the woods or deciduous forests. Quite similar to A. arvensis , it has a strong smell of anise and almond (benzyl alcohol, anisaldehyde). His hat is often shaded with yellow. Very good edible (beware of confusion with white amanites, and therefore check the color of the slats and the lack of volve).
- Agaricus xanthoderma : yellowing agaric. Could be confused with the previous one, but its smell of phenol, rather unpleasant, evokes nothing anise. In addition, it becomes very yellow if it is rubbed with the back of the nail. It grows mostly at the edge of the woods. It contains phenol derivatives that irritate the digestive tract (toxic).